SSAC-354

SSAC- 354 : BIOCHEMISTRY

Credits: 3(2+1)

THEORY:
History, scope and importance of biochemistry, structure and organelles of plant cell and their role, Biomolecules – Definition, types, structure, properties and their applications, Carbohydrates – Definition, classification, structure, properties and functions. Nucleotides and nucleic acid – Definition, components and their structure. Amino acids, peptides and proteins – Definition, classification, structure and properties, Plant proteins and their quality, Essential amino acids and limiting amino acids.

Lipids: Definition, classification, structure, properties and their significance Fatty acids- Definition, classification, structure and essential fatty acids Biochemical energetic : Definition, free energy concept of chemical reaction, components of electron transport chain, energy rich compounds.

Enzymes: Definition, classification, factors affecting enzyme activity. Enzyme immobilization (inactivation) and its Industrial application in agro ┬Čindustries, Vitamins and their coenzyme derivatives.

Metabolic energy and its generation metabolism: glycolysis, citric acid cycle, pentose phosphate pathways.

Phosphorylation: Definition, cyclic non-cyclic and substrate level phosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation.

Fatty acid oxidation-╬▓-oxidation. Biosynthesis- carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, Metabolic regulation- integration of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, Secondary metabolites – glycosides, tannins, lignins, gums and mucilages – Definition, classification, properties and their physiological roles and application in food and pharmaceutical industries. Secondary metabolites alkaloids, terpenoids Definition, classification, properties and their physiological roles and application in food and Pharmaceutical industries.

PRACTICAL:
Qualitative tests for carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Extraction of oil by Soxhlet’s method. Estimation of protein .Oil quality parameters (acid value, saponification value and iodine value), Quantitative determination of reducing and total sugars. Study of protein denaturation by heat, pH, precipitation of proteins with heavy metals. Determination of Ascorbic acid from fruit juice. Estimation of chlorophyll from plant sample. Separation of plant pigments ,Characterization of lipids by thin layer chromatography (TLC),Determination of poly-phenols by Folin-Denis method. Study of amino acid models, and structural models of sugar- sucrose and starch.

Practical (Experiments):
1) Qualitative tests for carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.
2) Extraction of oil by Soxhlet’s method.
3) Estimation of protein by Lowry’s method.
4) Estimation of oil quality parameters. (acid value, saponification value and iodine value)
5) Quantitative determination of reducing and total sugars by Benedict’s method.
6) Study of protein denaturation by heat, pH, precipitation of proteins with heavy metals.
7) Determination of Ascorbic acid from fruit juice.
8) Estimation of chlorophyll from plant sample.
9) Separation of plant pigments by paper chromatography.
10) Characterization of lipids by thin layer chromatography (TLC).
11) Determination of poly-phenols by Folin-Denis method.
12) Study of amino acid models.
13) Study of structural models of sugar- sucrose and starch.