Credit: 2(1+1)


Soil quality and health, Distribution of Waste land and problem soils in India. Theircategorization based on properties. Reclamation and management of Saline and sodic soils, Acidsoils, Acid Sulphate soils, Eroded and Compacted soils, Flooded soils, Polluted soils.Irrigation water – quality and standards, utilization of saline water in agriculture. Remotesensing and GIS in diagnosis and management of problem soils.Multipurpose tree species, bio remediation through MPTs of soils, land capability and classification, land suitability classification. Problematic soils under different Agro-ecosystems.


Saturation paste extract, its analysis for pHe and ECe, soluble cations and anions, competition of SAR and RSC. Exchangeable sodium percentages of  soil, gypsum requirement of sodic soil, lime requirement of acidic soils. Irrigation water sampling technique, sewage water.Determination of pH, EC, soluble cations and anions. Computation of RSC and SAR, BOD and COD of sewage water, Satellite image analysis of salt affected soils

Practical (Experiments):

1-2) Preparation of saturation paste extract

3) Determination of pHe and ECe

4-5) Determination of cations  (Ca, Mg, Na and K) and computation of SAR

6-7) Determination of ESP of soils

8) Determination of gypsum requirement of sodic soil

9) Determination of calcium carbonate from soil

10) Determination of lime requirement of acidic soil

11) Collection of irrigation water and sewage water

12) Determination pH and EC from irrigation water

13-14) Determination of cations  (Ca, Mg, Na and K) from irrigation water

15-16) Determination of anions  (CO3, HCO3, Cl and SO4) from irrigation water and RSC and SAR

17) Determination of BOD and COD

18) Satellite image analysis by visual method