PATH-121

PATH 121 : FUNDAMENTALS OF PLANT PATHOLOGY 
Credit: 3(2+1)

THEORY: 
Introduction: Importance of plant diseases, scope and objectives of Plant Pathology. History of Plant Pathology with special reference to Indian work.Terms and concepts in Plant Pathology.Pathogenesis.Cause and classification of plant diseases. Important plant pathogenic organisms, different groups: fungi, bacteria, fastidious vesicular bacteria, Phytoplasmas, spiroplasmas,viruses, viroids, algae, protozoa, phanerogamic parasites and nematodes with examples of diseases caused by them. Diseases and symptoms due to abiotic causes. Fungi: general characters, definition of fungus, somatic structures, types of fungal thalli, fungal tissues,modifications of thallus, reproduction (asexual and sexual). Nomenclature, Binomial system of nomenclature, rules of nomenclature, classification of fungi. Key to divisions,sub-divisions, orders and classes.Bacteria and mollicutes: general morphological characters. Basic methods of classification and reproduction.Viruses: nature, architecture, multiplication and transmission.Study of phanerogamic plant parasites.Nematodes: General morphology and reproduction, classification, symptoms and nature of damage caused by plant nematodes (Heterodera, Meloidogyne, Anguina etc.)Principles and methods of plant disease management.Nature, chemical combination, classification, mode of action and formulations of fungicides and antibiotics.

PRACTICALS:

Acquaintance with various laboratory equipments and microscopy. Preparation of media,isolation and Koch’s postulates. General study of different structures of fungi.Study of symptoms of various plant diseases.Study of representative fungal genera.Staining and identification of plant pathogenic bacteria.Transmission of plant viruses.Study of phanerogamic ant parasites.Study of morphological features and identification of plant parasitic nematodes.Extraction of nematodes from soil.Study of fungicides and their formulations.Methods of pesticide application and their safe use. Calculation of fungicide sprays concentrations.

Practicals (Experiments):
1) Acquaintance with various laboratory equipments and microscopy
2) General study of different structures of fungi.
3) Study of symptoms of various plant diseases.
4) Study of representative fungal genera
5) Staining and identification of plant pathogenic bacteria
6) Study of phanerogamic plant parasites
7) Transmission of plant viruses
8) Study of morphological features and identification of plant parasitic nematodes.
9) Preparation of media
10) Isolation and purification of fungi and bacteria
11) Extraction of nematodes from soil
12) Koch’s postulates
13) Study of fungicides and their formulations
14) Methods of pesticide application and their safe use
15) Calculation of fungicide sprays concentrations.
16) Collection and preservation of disease specimen