Credits: 3(2+1)

History of Microbiology: Spontaneous Generation Theory, Role of microbes in fermentation, Germ Theory of disease, Procaryotic and eucaryotic microorganisms. Morphology, cytology and other characters of bacteria, fungi, algae, actinomycetes and mycoplasma. Bacteriophages: structure and properties of bacterial viruses: Lytic and Lysogenic cycles; viroids, prions. Metabolism in bacteria: ATP generation, chemoautotrophy, photoautotrophy, respiration, and fermentation. Bacterial genetics: Gene expression; Genetic recombination: transformation, conjugation and transduction, genetic engineering, plasmids, episomes, Genetically Modified Organisms. Protection against infections. Plant-microbe interactions. Applied areas of Microbiology: Soil Microbiology: Microbial groups in soil, microbial transformations of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur, Biological nitrogen fixation. Microfora of rhizosphere and phyllosphere microflora, microbes in composting. Microbiology of Water: potable, irrigation, sewage water and water purification systems. Microbiology of food: microbial spoilage of food and principles of food preservation. Beneficial microorganisms in Agriculture: Biofertilizers (bacterial, cyanobacterial and fungal). Methods of application and quality norms of biofertilizers. Microbial insecticides. Microbial agents for control of plant diseases. Biodegradation, Biogas production.

General instructions, Familiarization with instruments, materials, glassware etc. in a Microbiology laboratory: Practice of Aseptic methods: I – Evaluation of aseptic technique with Nutrient broth tubes. II- Evaluation of aseptic technique with a Nutrient agar plate. Methods of Sterilization and Preparation of media: I- Preparation of nutrient broth, nutrient agar plates, nutrient agar slant and nutrient agar stabling; II- Sterilization of glassware by dry heating; III – Sterilization of nutrient broth by filtration. Plating methods for Isolation and Purification of bacteria I – Isolation of bacteria by Streak plate method. II – Isolation of aerobic spore forming bacteria by Enrichment using Streak plate method. III – Checking of purity of a bacterial culture by Streak plating method. Identification of bacteria by staining methods and biochemical tests: I – Morphological examination of bacteria by Simple and Differential staining. II – Different biochemical tests for identification of bacterial culture; Enumeration of bacteria: I – Enumeration of bacteria by Stain slide method. II-Enumeration of bacteria by most probable number method.III – Enumeration of bacteria by Pour plate method and Spread plate method.

Practicals (Experiments):
1) Acquaintance with microscope and other lab equipments.
2) Study of morphology of bacteria.
3) Simple staining of bacteria.
4) Gram staining of bacteria.
5) Methods of sterilization.
6) Preparation of culture media.
7) Preparation of nutrient broth, pour plate, slants and stabs.
8) Isolation of bacteria by Streak Method.
9) Isolation of Rhizobium bacteria by Pour Plate Technique.
10) Purification methods of bacterial cultures.
11) Estimation of soil microflora by Dilution Pour Plate Technique.
12) Estimation of soil microflora by Buried Slide Technique.
13) Enumeration of bacteria by Direct Microscopic Count Method.
14) Isolation of bacteria (Azotobacter) by Enrichment Culture Technique.
15) Isolation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria using specific medium.
16) Tests for acid and gas production and liquefaction of gelatin by bacteria.
17) Enumeration of bacteria (Azospirillum) by Most Probable Number Method.