GPB-232

GPB-232: FUNDAMENTALS OF PLANT BREEDING

Credits: 2(1+1)

THEORY:

Historical development, concept, nature and role of plant breeding, major achievements and future prospects; Genetics in relation to plant breeding, modes of reproduction and apomixes, self-incompatibility and male sterility- genetic consequences, cultivar options. Domestication, Acclimatization and Introduction; Centres of origin/diversity, components of Genetic  variation; Heritability and genetic advance;  Genetic basis and breeding methods in self- pollinated  crops – mass and pure line selection, hybridization techniques and handling of segregating population; Multiline concept. Concepts of population genetics and Hardy-Weinberg Law, Genetic basis and methods of breeding cross pollinated crops,  modes of selection;  Population improvement Schemes- Ear to row method, Modified Ear to Row, recurrent selection schemes;Heterosis and inbreeding depression, development of inbred lines and hybrids, composite and synthetic varieties;  Breeding methods in asexually propagated crops,  clonal selection and hybridization; Maintenance of breeding records and data collection; Wide hybridization and pre-breeding; Polyploidy in relation to plant breeding, mutation breeding-methods and uses; Breeding for important biotic and abiotic stresses; Biotechnological tools-DNA markers and marker assisted selection. Participatory plant breeding; Intellectual Property Rights, Patenting, Plant Breeders and & Farmer’s Rights.

PRACTICALS:

Plant Breeder’s kit, Study of germplasm of various crops. Study of floral structure of self-pollinated and cross pollinated crops. Emasculation and hybridization techniques in self & cross pollinated crops.Consequences of inbreeding on genetic structure of resulting populations.Study of male sterility system.Handling of segregation populations.Methods of calculating mean, range, variance, standard deviation, heritability. Designs used in plant breeding experiments, analysis of Randomized Block Design. To work out the mode of pollination in a given crop and extent of natural out-crossing.Prediction of performance of double cross hybrids.

Practicals (Experiments):

1) Plant Breeder’s kit

2) Study of germplasm of various crops

3) Study of floral structure of self pollinated crops

4) Study of floral structure of cross pollinated crops

5) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in self pollinated crops : Green gram, Black gram, Rice, Wheat, Groundnut, Soybean

6) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in self pollinated crops : Sesame, Chickpea, Okra, Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli

7) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in cross pollinated crops : Maize, Bajra, Sunflower, Papaya, Sugarcane

8) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in often cross pollinated crops : Cotton, Sorghum, Pigeonpea

9) Consequences of inbreeding on genetic structure of resulting populations

10) Study of male sterility system

11) Handing of segregation populations

12) Methods of calculating mean, range, variance, standard deviation, heritability

13) Designs used in plant breeding experiment

14) Analysis of Rondomized Block Design

15) To work out the mode of pollination in a given crop and extent of natural out crossing

16) Prediction of performance of double cross hybrids