Credit: 3(2+1)


Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies Definition, scope and importance.Natural Resources: Renewable and non-renewable resources, Natural resources and associatedproblems. a) Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies. Timberextraction, mining, dams and their effects on forest and tribal people. b) Water resources: Use andover-utilization of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams-benefitsand problems. c) Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting andusing mineral resources, case studies. d) Food resources: World food problems, changes causedby agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, waterlogging, salinity, case studies. e) Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and nonrenewableenergy sources, use of alternate energy sources. Case studies. f) Land resources: Landas a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides, soil erosion and desertification.

  • Roleof an individual in conservation of natural resources.
  • Equitable use of resources for sustainablelifestyles.

Ecosystems: Concept of an ecosystem, Structure and function of an ecosystem, Producers,consumers and decomposers, Energy flow in the ecosystem. Ecological succession, Food chains,food webs and ecological pyramids. Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure andfunction of the following ecosystem: a. Forest ecosystem b. Grassland ecosystem c. Desertecosystem d. Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)

Biodiversity and its conservation: – Introduction, definition, genetic, species & ecosystemdiversity and biogeographical classification of India. Value of biodiversity: consumptive use,productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values. Biodiversity at global, National andlocal levels, India as a mega-diversity nation.Hot-sports of biodiversity. Threats to biodiversity:habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts. Endangered and endemic species ofIndia. Conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.Environmental Pollution: definition, cause, effects and control measures of:a. Air pollutionb. Water pollution c. Soil pollution d. Marine pollution e. Noise pollution f. Thermal pollutiong. Nuclear hazards. Solid Waste Management: causes, effects and control measures of urban andindustrial wastes. Role of an individual in prevention of pollution.

Social Issues and the Environment: From Unsustainable to Sustainable development, Urbanproblems related to energy, Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management.Environmental ethics: Issues and possible solutions, climate change, global warming, acid rain,ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust. dies. Wasteland reclamation.Consumerismand waste products.Environment Protection Act.Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act.Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act.Wildlife Protection Act.Forest ConservationAct. Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation. Public awareness.Human Population and the Environment: population growth, variation among nations,population explosion, Family Welfare Programme. Environment and human health: HumanRights, Value Education, HIV/AIDS. Women and Child Welfare.Role of Information Technologyin Environment and human health.


Disaster Management

Natural Disasters- Meaning and nature of natural disasters, their types and effects. Floods,drought, cyclone, earthquakes, landslides, avalanches, volcanic eruptions, Heat and cold waves,Climatic change: global warming, Sea level rise, ozone depletion.

Man Made Disasters- Nuclear disasters, chemical disasters, biological disasters, building fire,coal fire, forest fire, oil fire, air pollution, water pollution, deforestation, industrial waste waterpollution, road accidents, rail accidents, air accidents, sea accidents.

Disaster Management- Effect to migrate natural disaster at national and global levels.International strategy for disaster reduction.Concept of disaster management, national disastermanagement framework; financial arrangements; role of NGOs, community –based organizationsand media.Central, state, district and local administration; Armed forces in disaster response;Disaster response; Police and other organizations.


Pollution case studies. Case Studies- Field work: Visit to a local area to document environmentalassets river/ forest/ grassland/ hill/ mountain, visit to a local polluted site-Urban/Rural/Industrial/Agricultural, study of common plants, insects, birds and study of simple ecosystems-pond, river,hill slopes, etc.

Practicals (Experiments):

1) Study of collection, processing and storage of effluent samples

2) To estimates solids in water samples

3) To measure the dissolved O2 content in pond water by Winkler’s method

4) Estimation of respirable and non respirable dust in the air by using portable dust sampler

5) Determination of sound level by using sound level meter

6) Study of community structure

7) Study of pond / River/ hill slopes ecosystem-abiotic and biotic components

8) Study of grass land and agro-ecosystem and measurement of their productivity

9) Crop adaptation to different ecosystems. A. Hydrophytes

10) Crop adaptation to different ecosystems. B. Mesophytes

11) Crop adaptation to different ecosystems. C. Xerophytes

12) Crop adaptation to different ecosystems. D. Halophytes

13) Study and Visit of flora and Fauna

14) Visit to local polluted site – Urban / Rural: observations and remedial control measures

15) Visit to local polluted site – Industrial: observations and remedial control measures

16) Collection, identification, herbarium, maintenance and study of plants grown in various ecosystems