ENTO-232

ENTO-232: INSECT ECOLOGY AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

Credit: 2(1+1)

THEORY:

Part I: Insect Ecology: Definition, scope, environment and its components. Effect of abiotic factors – temperature, moisture, humidity, rainfall, light, atmospheric pressure and air currents. Effect of biotic factors – food competition, natural and environmental resistance. Concepts of balance of life in nature, biotic potential and environmental resistance and causes for outbreak of pests in agro-ecosystem.

Part II: Pest surveillance, it’s types and pest forecasting. Categories of pests. Natural and applied pest control. IPM – Introduction, Importance, Scope, Concepts, Principles, Tools and Limitations of IPM. Host plant resistance, cultural, mechanical, physical and legislative methods of pest control. Biological- parasitoids, predators and transgenic plant pathogens such as bacterial, fungi and viruses. Chemical control– importance, hazards and limitations.  Classification of insecticides, toxicity of insecticides and formulations of insecticides. Examples of important insecticide groups – botanical insecticides – Neem based products. Cyclodienes, Organophosphates, Carbamates, Synthetic pyrethroids, Novel insecticides, Pheromones, Nicotinyl insecticides, Chitin synthesis inhibitors,  Phenyl pyrazoles, Avermectins, Macrocyclic lactones, Oxadiazines, Thioureaderivaties, Pyridine azomethines, Pyrrolesetc, Nematicides, Rodenticides, Acaricides and Fumigants. Insecticides Act 1968- important provisions. Application techniques of spray fluids. Phytotoxicity of insecticides. Symptoms of poisoning, first aid and antidotes. Recent methods of pest control.  Repellants, antifeedants, hormones, attractants, gamma radiation and genetic control.

PRACTICAL:

Visit to meteorological observatory / automatic weather reporting station. Terrestrial and pond ecosystems of insects. Behaviour of insects and orientation (repellency, stimulation, deterancy). Distribution patterns of insects, sampling techniques for the estimation of insect population and damage. Pest surveillance through light traps, pheromone traps and field incidence. Practicable IPM practices- Mechanical and physical methods,  Cultural and biological methods. Chemical control – Insecticides and their formulations. Pesticide appliances, insecticide application techniques, calibration of plant protection appliances, Calculation of doses/concentrations of insecticides.  Compatibility of pesticides and Phytotoxicity of insecticides IPM case studies–Cotton, Sugarcane, Mango/ Citrus/Pomegranate. Identification of common phytophagous mites and their morphological characters Identification of rodents, bird pests, their damage and management. Vermiculture – visit to vermiculture unit,Biopesticides used in IPM with mass multiplication of NPV and Entomopathogenic fungi.

Practical (Experiments):

1) Visit to meteorological observatory / automatic weather reporting station

2) Study of terrestrial and pond ecosystems of insects.

3) Studies on behaviour of insects and orientation (repellency, stimulation, deterancy).

4) Study of distribution patterns of insects, sampling techniques for the estimation of insect population and damage

5) Pest surveillance through light traps, pheromone traps and field incidence

6) Practicable IPM practices- Mechanical and Physical methods

7) Practicable IPM practices – Cultural and Biological methods

8) Chemical control – Insecticides and their formulations

9) Pesticide appliances, insecticide application techniques, calibration of plant protection appliances

10) Calculation of doses/concentrations of insecticides

11) Compatibility of pesticides and phytotoxicity of insecticides

12) IPM case studies -Cotton

13) IPM case studies – Sugarcane

14) IPM case studies – Mango/ Citrus/Pomegranate

15) Identification of common phytophagous mites and their morphological characters

16) Identification of rodents and bird pests and their damage

17) Vermiculture – visit to vermiculture unit

18) Biopesticides used in IPM with mass multiplication of NPV and Entomopathogenic fungi.