ENTO-121

ENTO 121 : FUNDAMENTALS OF ENTOMOLOGY
Credit: 2(1+1)

THEORY:
Part-I
Introduction and History of Entomology in India. Definitions: Insect, Entomology, Agricultural Entomology. Classification of phylum Arthropoda up to classes. Relationship of class Insecta with other classes of Arthropoda. Insect Dominance. Economic importance of insects: Harmful, Beneficial and productive insects. Premier institutes concerned with Entomology. Morphology:- Insect integument: structure and functions. Cuticular appendages and processes. Moulting: Definition and steps in moulting. Body segmentation: Structure of head, thorax and abdomen. Insect head capsule: Important sclerites and sutures. Positions of head. Structure and modifications of insect antennae, mouth parts, legs and wings (wing venation, wing coupling apparatus). Structure of thorax and abdomen: segmentation, appendages and processes, pregenital and post genital appendages and structure of male and female genital organ. Metamorphosis: Definition and types of metamorphosis with examples and its significance. Insect Diapause: Definition and example, Seasonal adaptations in insects: aestivation, hibernation and quiescence: Definitions; Insect egg: General structure, types of egg with examples (at least one). Types of larva and pupa with examples. Structure and functions of digestive, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, excretory, secretary and reproductive systems in insects. Types of reproduction in insects. Sensory organs sound producing organs in insects

Part-II
Systematics: Definitions: Taxonomy, Systematics, Binomial nomenclature, Order, Family, Genus, Species, Subspecies, Biotype. Binomial nomenclature: Definition and Rules. Classification of Class Insectaupto Orders. Important orders: Important distinguishing/taxonomic characters of orders with families of agricultural importance with examples.Orthoptera: Acrididae, Tettigonidae, Gryllidae, Gryllotalpidae; Dictyoptera: Mantidae, Blattidae; Odonata; Isoptera: Termitidae; Thysanoptera: Thripidae; Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, Coreidae, Cimicidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Lygaeidae, Cicadellidae, Delphacidae, Aphididae, Coccidae, Aleurodidae, Pseudococcidae, Lophopidae, Lacciferidae; Neuroptera: Chrysopidae; Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Papiloinidae, Noctuidae, Sphingidae, Pyralidae, Gelechiidae, Arctiidae, Saturniidae, Bombycidae;Coleoptera:Coccinellidae,Chrysomelidae,Cerambycidae,Curculionidae,Bruchidae,Scarabaeidae;Hymenoptera:Tenthridinidae,Apidae. Trichogrammatidae, lchneumonidae, Braconidae, Chalcididae; Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, Tachinidae, Agromyziidae, Culicidae,Muscidae, Tephritidae.

PRACTICALS:

Methods of collection and preservation of insects. External features of Cockroach. Types of insect antennae, mouthparts (dissection) and legs. Wing venation, types of wings and wing coupling apparatus. Types of insect larvae and pupae. Dissection of digestive system, Central nervous system, male and female reproductive systems in insects (Cockroach/Grasshopper). Distinguishing/taxonomic characters of orders: Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Odonata, Isoptera, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Neuroptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera and their families of agricultural importance with examples.

Practicals (Experiments):

1) Methods of collection and preservation of insects including immature stages
2) External features of typical insect (e.g. Cockroach) structure of head, thorax and abdomen/General body organization of insect
3) Structure of antennae and its modifications along with examples.
4) Study and dissection of chewing and biting type of mouthparts.
5) Study and dissection of chewing and lapping type of mouthparts.
6) Study and dissection of piercing and sucking type of mouthparts.
7) Study and dissection of sponging type of mouthparts.
8) Structure of typical leg and modifications of legs.
9) Study of insect wings: Structure, wing venation, types of wings and wing coupling apparatus along with examples.
10) Types of larva and pupa.
11) Study and dissection of digestive system of cockroach.
12) Study and dissection of central nervous system of cockroach
13) Study and dissection of female reproductive system of cockroach
14) Study and Dissection of male reproductive system of Cockroach
15) Study of distinguishing taxonomic characters of orders and families of agricultural importance: Odonata, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera.
16) Study of distinguishing taxonomic characters of orders and families of agricultural importance: Isoptera, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera.
17) Study of distinguishing taxonomic characters of orders and families of agricultural importance: Neuroptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera.
18) Study of distinguishing taxonomic characters of orders and families of agricultural importance: Diptera and Coleoptera.