Credits: 3(2+1)

Introduction, Environment and its components. Effect of abiotic factors-temperature, moisture, humidity, rainfall, light, atmospheric pressure and air currents. Effect of biotic factors — food competition, natural and environmental resistance. Concepts of Balance of life in nature, biotic potential and environmental resistance and causes for outbreak of pests in agro-ecosystem. Pest surveillance and pest forecasting. Categories of pests. IPM, Introduction, importance, concepts, principles and tools of IPM. Cultural, Mechanical, Physical, Legislative, Biological,(parasites, predators & insect pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and viruses) methods of control. Chemical control- importance, advantages and disadvantages, classification of insecticides, toxicity of insecticides and formulations of insecticides. Botanical insecticides, Organochlorines, Cyclodienes Organophosphates, Carbamates, Synthetic pyrethroids, Neo nicotinoides, Novel insecticides, Chitin synthesis inhibitors, Phenyl pyrazoles, Avermectins, Macrocyclic lactones, Oxadiazines. Thiourea derivatives, pyridine azomethines, pyrroles, etc. Nematicides, Rodenticides, Acaricides and fumigants, Recent methods of pest control, repellents, antifeedants, hormones, attractants, gamma radiation and genetic control. Insecticides Act, 1968 – Important provisions. Application techniques of spray fluids, Phytotoxicity of insecticides Symptoms of poisoning, first aid and antidotes, Beneficial insects. Parasites and predators used in pest control and their mass multiplication techniques, Important groups of microorganisms, bacteria, viruses and fungi used in pest control and their mass multiplication techniques. Important species of pollinators, weed killers and scavengers, their importance. Non insect pests – mites, nematodes, rodents and birds vermiculture.

Visit to meteorological observatory, automatic weather reporting station; Study of terrestrial and pond ecosystems of insects, studies on behaviour of insects and orientation (repellency, stimulation, deterancy). Study of distribution patterns of insects, sampling techniques for the estimation of insect population and damage; Pest surveillance through light traps, pheromone traps and field incidence; Practicable IPM practices, Mechanical and physical methods; Cultural and biological methods; Chemical control, Insecticides and their formulations; Calculation of doses/ concentrations of insecticides; Compatibility of pesticides and Phytotoxicity of insecticides; IPM case studies; of common phytophagous mites and their morphological characters; identification of common plant parasitic nematodes and their morphological characters identification of rodents and bird pests and their damage; identification of earthworm species. Visit to vermiculture unit; other beneficial insects- pollinators, weed killers and scavengers.

Practical (Experiments):
1) Visit to meteorological observatory.
2) Study of terrestrial and pond ecosystem of insects.
3) Study of behaviour of insects and orientation.
4) Study of distribution patterns and sampling techniques for the estimation of insect population and damage.
5) Surveillance of pests by using light traps, pheromone traps and field incidence.
6) IPM practices- mechanical and physical Methods.
7) IPM practices – Cultural, biological and chemical methods.
8) Insecticides and their formulations.
9) Calculation of doses/ concentrations of insecticides Pesticide equipments.
10)Study of compatibility and phytotoxicity of insecticides.
11) IPM case studies.
12) Study of mites.
13) Study of plant parasitic nematodes.
14) Study of rodents and birds.
15) Study of earthworms and visit to vermeries.
16)Study of pollinators, weed killers and scavengers.