ENT-231

ENT- 231 : INSECT MORPHOLOGY AND SYSTEMATICS

Credits: 3(2+1)

THEORY:
History of Entomology in India. Factors for insects abundance, classification of phylum Arthropoda upto classes. Relationship of class lnsecta with other classes ofArthropoda. Morphology : Structure and functions of insect cuticle and moulting. Body segmentation, Structure of Head, thorax and abdomen, Structure and modification of insect antennae, mouth parts and legs. Wing venation, modifications and wing coupling apparatus, Structure of male and female genitalia, Sensory organs. Metamorphosis and diapause in insects. Types of larvae and pupae. Structure and functions of digestive, circulatory, excretory, respiratory, nervous, secretary (Endocrine) and reproductive system in insects. Types of reproduction in insects.

Systematics: Taxonomy- importance, history and development and binomial nomenclature. Definitions of Biotype, Sub¬species. Species, Genus, Family and Order. classification of class lnsecta upto Orders. Orthoptera, Acrididae. Dictyoptera, Mantidae, Odonata, Isoptera, Termitidae, Thysanoptera, Thripidae. Hemiptera. Pentatomidae, Coreidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Lygaeidae, Cicadellidae, Delphacidae, Aphididae. Aleurodidae, Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Sphingidae, Pyralidae, Gelechiidae, Arctiidae, Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Chrysamelidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, Bruchidae, Scarabaeidae, Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Apidae, Trichogrammatidae, lchneumonidae, Braconidae, Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Trypetidae, Tachinidae, Agromyzidae.

PRACTICAL:
Methods of collection and preservation of insects including immature stages; External features of Grasshopper/cockroach; Types of insect antennae, mouthparts and legs; Wing venation, types of wings and wing coupling apparatus Types of insect larvae and pupae; Dissection of digestive system in insects (Grasshopper/cockroach); Dissection of male and female reproductive systems in insects (Grasshopper/cockroach); Study of characters of orders Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Odonata, lsoptera, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, europtera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera and their families of agricultural importance.

Practical (Experiments):
1) Methods of collection and preservation of insects including immature stages.
2) External features of typical insect (Grasshopper/cockroach) Structure of head, thorax and abdomen.
3) Structure of antenna and its modifications.
4) Dissection of Chewing and biting type of mouthparts.
5) Dissection of Chewing and lapping type of mouthparts.
6) Dissection of Piercing and sucking type of mouthparts.
7) Dissection of Chewing and biting type of mouthparts.
8) Structure of typical leg and modifications of legs.
9) Wing venation, types of wings and wing coupling apparatus.
10) Metamorphosis in insects along with its significance and types of insect eggs, larvae and pupae.
11) Dissection of digestive system of Cockroach/Grasshopper.
12) Dissection of male reproductive system of Cockroach/Grasshopper.
13) Dissection of female reproductive system of Cockroach/Grasshopper.
14) Dissection of central nervous system of Cockroach / Grasshopper.
15) Study of characters of orders along with their families of agricultural importance: Odonata,Orthoptera and Dictyoptera.
16) Study of characters of orders along with their families of agricultural importance: Isoptera, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera.
17) Study of characters of orders along with their families of agricultural importance: Neuroptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera.
18) Study of characters of orders along with their families of agricultural importance: Diptera and Coleoptera.

Assignment: Each student should collect at least 100 insect specimens belonging to the aforesaid orders.