ELE SSAC – 364




An introduction to agrochemicals, their type and role in agriculture, effect on environment,soil, human and animal health, merits and demerits of their uses in agriculture, management ofagrochemicals for sustainable agriculture.Herbicides-Major classes, properties and important herbicides.Fate of herbicides.Fungicides – Classification – Inorganic fungicides – characteristics, preparation and use ofsulfur and copper, Mode of action-Bordeaux mixture and copper oxychloride.Organic fungicides- Mode of action- Dithiocarbamates-characteristics, preparation and useof Zineb and maneb.Systemic fungicides- Benomyl, carboxin, oxycarboxin, Metalaxyl, Carbendazim,characteristics and use. Introduction and classification of insecticides: inorganic andorganic insecticides Organochlorine, Organophosphates, Carbamates, Synthetic pyrethroidsNeonicotinoids, Biorationals, Insecticide Act and rules, Insecticides banned, withdrawn andrestricted use, Fate of insecticides in soil & plant. IGRs Biopesticides, Reduced risk insecticides,Botanicals, plant and animal systemic insecticides their characteristics and uses.Fertilizers and their importance. Nitrogenous fertilizers: Feedstocks and Manufacturing ofammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium chloride, urea. Slow release N-fertilizers.Phosphatic fertilizers: feedstock and manufacturing of single superphosphate. Preparationof bone meal and basic slag.Potassic fertilizers: Natural sources of potash, manufacturing ofpotassiumchloride, potassium sulphate and potassium nitrate.Mixed and complex fertilizers: Sources and compatibility–preparation of major, secondaryand micronutrient mixtures. Complex fertilizers: Manufacturing of ammonium phosphates,nitrophosphates and NPK complexes. Fertilizer control order. Fertilizer logistics and marketing.Plant bio-pesticides for ecological agriculture, Bio-insect repellent.


Sampling of fertilizers and pesticides.Pesticides application technology to study about variouspesticides appliances.Quick tests for identification of common fertilizers.Identification of anionand cation in fertilizer.Calculation of doses of insecticides to be used.To study and identify variousformulations of insecticide available kin market.Estimation of nitrogen in Urea. Estimation of

120water soluble P2O5 and citrate soluble P2O5 in single super phosphate. Estimation of potassium inMuraite of Potash/ Sulphate of Potash by flame photometer.Determination of copper content incopper oxychloride.Determination of sulphur content in sulphur fungicide.Determinationof thiram.Determination of ziram content.

Practical (Experiments):

1) Fertilizer Adulteration test / Identification of Adulteration in fertilizer / Detection of adulteration in fertilizers (Rapid test)

2) Determination of (Amide nitrogen) from urea.

3) Determination of ammoniacal nitrogen content and nitrate nitrogen content from nitrogenous fertilizer

4) Determination of water soluble phosphorus in superphosphate (Pumberton method)

5) Determination of acid soluble phosphorus from rock phosphate

6) Determination of total potassium content of muriate of potash (by flame photometer).

7) Determination of sulphur content from fertilizer (Gravimetric Method)

8) Determination of Zinc content from micronutrient fertilizer (EDTA Method)

9) Study of plant protection appliances

10) Calculation of doses of insecticides

11) Study of formulations of pesticides

12) Study of pesticide application techniques.

13) Herbicide label information and computation of herbicide doses.

14) Equipments used for herbicide application and calibration. Demonstration of methods of herbicide application.

15) Study of phytotoxicity symptoms of herbicides in different crops.

16) Handling and storage of fungicides and Agrochemicals

17) Preparation of Bordeaux mixture and Bordeaux paste and fungicides solutions.

18) Methods of application of fungicides.