ELE PATH-243

ELE PATH-243: BIOFERTILIZERS, BIOCONTROL AGENTS AND BIOPESTICIDES

Credit: 3(2+1)

THEORY:

Biofertilizers: Introduction and types and importance of biofertilizers, Biopesticides and bioagents in agriculture and organic farming system, History of biofertilizers production Classification of biofertilizers microorganisms used in biofertilizers production. A study of growth characteristics of various microbes used in biofertilizers production. Nitrogen cycle in Nature. Process of nodule formation ,Role of Nif and Nod gene in Biological Nitrogen fixation, Enzyme nitrogenase and its component, Biochemistry of nitrogen fixation, Cross inoculation groups amongst Rhizobium, Methods used for the studying selection of efficient strain of Rhizobium .Quality standard for biofertilizers different methods of application of biofertilizers, role of microorganisms in decomposition of organic farm wastes, methods of quality control assessment in respect of biofertilizers, Strategies of Mass multiplication and packing  Registration of biofertilizers. Strategies of marking and Registration with CIB of bioagents and biopesticides

Importance of Trichoderma spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp. as a biocontrol agents,Mechanism of disease control by thses organisms bioagents .Types of diseases controlled bioagents formulations, Effectiveness of bioagents against seed borne and soil borne plant pathogens, Mass multiplication and packing , Strategies of marking, and Registration with CIB and organic farming institute

Importance of  Trichogramma, Cryptolaemus, Chrysoperla, NPV and entomofungal pathogens. Establishing insectary for host insects and natural enemies, Mass production of Verticillium/Beauveria/Metarhzium/Nomuraea/Paecilomyces/Hirsutella thompsoni/Trichoderma,/Pseudomonas/Bacillus/Potash Mobilizers/Sulphur oxidizers  /organic matter decomposers

PRACTICALS:

Equipment, machinery and tools used for biofertilizers, Biopesticides and bioagents production. Preparation of media used  for isolation and culturing of biofertilizers  :  Jensen’s agar, NFb medium, Yeast extract manitol agar, BGA-medium, Pikovaskaya’s medium ;  Isolation  of   Rhizobium   from root nodulesIsolation  Azotobacter from rhizosphere of cereal crops, Beijernickia, Acetobacterfrom soil, Azospirillium from roots of graminicious plants, BGA from soil, Mycorrhizae from the roots,PSM sulphur oxidizing microorganisms, ion chealator, potash mobilizers ,organic matter decomposers  and their  isolation in pure culture form.  Estimating the efficiency of  Rhizobium through pot culture experiments and through nodulation tests in test tubes and Leonard jar.. Preservation of cultures of these organisms.  Production of commercial biofertilizers viz. Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and  Acetobacter : selection of efficient strains, carriers and their  sterilization,  mother  culture  preparation, mass   multiplication using shake culture method, mixing of culture and carriers and preparation of packets.  Production of carrier based and grain based phosphate solubilizing biofertilizers.

Methods of mass multiplication of BGA and Azolla.A large scale production of decomposting cultures.  Va-mycorrhiza : growth on Guinea grass roots and observations for root colonization. Preparation of  VA-mycorrhizal inoculum.

Methods of application  ofRhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and  phosphate solubilizing biofertilizers. Methods of application of Azolla and blue green algal biofertilizers in paddy farming.Production of compost cultures.

Quality control of biofertilizers : ISI standards specified and estimating the viable bacterial count in carrier based biofertilizers.  Storage of biofertilizer packets. Visit to biofertilizer plants. Preparation of plan of biofertilizer production unit and proposal of loan.

Biopesticide and bioagents :Mass production of Trichogramma, Cryptolaemus, Crysoperla,Mass HaNPV, and EPN. Importance ofVerticillium/Beauveria/ Metarhzium/Nomuraea/ Paecilomyces/Hirsutella thompsoni/Trichoderma,/Pseudomonas/Bacillus/ organic matter decomposers. Testing of quality parameters and standardization of biopesticides.

Practical (Experiments):

1) Equipment, machinery and tools used for biofertilizers, Biopesticides and bioagents production

2) Media used for biofertilizers, Biopesticides and bioagents production

3) Isolation of   Rhizobium   from root nodules.  Isolation of Azotobacter ,Acetobactor,Beijernickia,Azospirillium. I. By dilution pour plate technique  and II. By enrichment culture technique

4) Isolation of BGA,PSB, sulphur oxidizing microorganisms, ion chealator, potash mobilizers ,organic matter decomposers  I. By dilution pour plate technique  and II. By enrichment culture technique

5) Estimating the efficiency of Rhizobium through pot culture experiments and through nodulation tests in test tubes and Leonard jar

6) Production of Rhizobium commercial biofertilizers of Azotobacter , AzospirillumAcetobacter, organic matter decomposers

7) Production of carrier biofertilizers of sulphur oxidizing microorganisms, ion chealator, potash mobilizers

8) Study of VA-mycorrhiza: growth on Guinea grass roots and observations for root colonization. Methods of preparation and application of VA-mycorrhizal inoculum

9) Mass production of Trichogramma,Cryptolaemus,Crysoperla

10) Mass production of HaNPV, SlNPV and EPN

11) Mass production of Verticillium/Beauveria/ Metarhzium/Nomuraea/ Paecilomyces/Hirsutella thompsoni/Trichoderma

12) Mass multiplication of BGA and  Azolla and its application in paddy field

13) Methods of application of biofertilizers, Biopesticides and bioagents

14) Quality control of biofertilizers: ISI standards specified and estimating the viable bacterial count in carrier based biofertilizers, Biopesticides and bioagents

15) Quality control tests for the biofertilizers, Biopesticides and bioagents

16) Preparation of plan of biofertilizers, Biopesticides and bioagents production unit and proposal of loan

17) CIB Registration for Biopesticides and bioagents

18) Visits to Commercial biocontrol units and Krishi Seva Kendra