BOT-245

BOT-245: BREEDING OF FIELD AND HORTICULTURAL CROPS

Credits: 3(2+1)

THEORY:
Definition, Breeding objectives and important concepts of breeding, self pollinated, cross pollinated and vegetatively propagated crops.
Role of National and International Crop improvement Institutes and organizations.

Study in respect of origin, Botanical names, family, Genus, Chromosome numbers, Distribution of species, Wild species and forms: Cereals (Sorghum, Bajra, Maize, Rice, Wheat, Ragi); Pulses (Tur, Gram, Mung, Udid, Soybean);Oilseeds (Ground nut, Soybean, Sunflower, Safflower, Sesame, Linseed); Fiber (Cotton, Kenaf, Roselle, jute); Fruit (Mango, Aonla, Guava, Custard apple, Banana, Papaya); Vegetables (Tomato, Brinjal, Bhindi, Chilli, Cucumber); Flowers (Chrysanthemum, Rose, Gailardia, Gerbera, Marigold).

Major breeding procedures for development of hybrids/ varieties of various crops: Introduction, Merits and demerits, Procedure flowchart with modifications in short, Achievements.

Self pollinated crops: Mass selection, Pureline selection, Pedigree selection, Bulk method, Backcross method, Progeny and Single Seed Descent method.

Cross pollinated crops: Population Improvement, (Mass, Progeny selection and Recurrent selection).

Other methods: Clonal selection, Mutation, Polyploidy, Distant hybridization.

Plant genetic resources, their conservation and utilization in crop improvement: Germplasm Definition, landrace, Variety, cultivar, wild type, Gene pool concept, Genetic erosion, germplasm collection and conservation types and methods in short.

Ideotype concept in crop improvement: Concept, Types of ideotype, Characteristics of a ideotype, Major steps in ideotype breeding, Ideotype of rice and ragi; wheat, sorghum, cotton, Merits and limitation of ideotype breeding.

Breeding for stress resistance: Introduction, Types of stresses

Biotic stresses: History, Types of resistance, Variability in pathogens and pests mechanism of pathogen resistance, achievements.

Abiotic stresses: Types, Drought and mineral toxicity resistance, achievements. Genetic basis of adaptability for unfavourable environments, salinity, drought, high and low temperature.

Biometrics:
Definition of biometrics, assessment of variability Range, Arithmetic mean, Variance, S.D., S.E., C.V. Multiple factor hypothesis: Explanation of Yule hypothesis given by Nilsson-Ehle (1908), Components of genetic variance. Heterosis and Inbreeding depression. Combining ability analysis. Genotype x Environment interaction and influence on yield performance. Stability analysis.

IPR and its related issues:
History, Need of IPR, Full forms and head quarters of WTO, GATT, UPOV, TRIPs, FAO, WIPO etc, Acts: Need & Objectives: i. Registration and protection Act 1999 (Geographical Indications of goods) ii. PPV & FRs Act. 2001 iii. Biological diversity Act 2002.
Registration of plant varieties under “PPV and FR’s Authority and Registry” in India, Farmers & Researchers Rights, Duration and effect of registration and benefit sharing. Breeders Variety, Farmers variety, extant variety, EDV, Private company variety, DUS testing, CBD.

PRACTICALS:
Floral biology and hybridization technique in cereals (Any one crop) maize, rice.
Floral biology and hybridization technique in pulses (Any one crop) Tur, Gram.
Floral biology and hybridization technique in oilseeds (Any one crop) groundnut, sunflower.
Floral biology and hybridization technique in cotton.
Floral biology and hybridization technique in fruit crops (Any one crop) banana, citrus, coconut, sapota.
Floral biology and hybridization technique in vegetables (Any one crop) brinjal, chilli, tomato and okra.
Floral biology and hybridization technique in flower crops (Any one crops) rose, jasmine and marigold.

Quality breeding in some important crops Sources of donor plants. Handling of breeding material and maintenance of experimental record, self pollinated crops, cross pollinated crops, field layout etc. Problems on Hardy-Weinberg law, Estimation of Variability parameters. Estimation of Heritability, Estimation of Heterosis and Inbreeding depression, Estimation of Combining Ability, seed production and certification plots, AICRP programme, Grow out test plot, various research stations and other institutions. Hybrids and improved varieties of field crops, forage crops, and horticulture crops, Visits to commercial breeding farms and institutes.

Practicals (Experiments):
1) Floral biology and hybridization technique in cereals (Any one crop): Maize, Rice.
2) Floral biology and hybridization technique in pulses (Any one crop): Tur, Gram.
3) Floral biology and hybridization technique in oilseeds (Any one crop): Ground nut, Sunflower.
4) Floral biology and hybridization technique in cotton.
5)Floral biology and hybridization technique in fruit crops (Any one crop): Kokum, Mango, Banana, Sapota.
6) Floral biology and hybridization technique in vegetables (Any one crop): Brinjal, Chilli, Tomato, Okra.
7) Floral biology and hybridization technique in tuber (Any one crop): Amorphophallus, Sweet potato.
8) Floral biology and hybridization technique in flower crops (Any one crops): Rose, Jasmine, Marigold.
9) Quality breeding in some important crops.
10) Sources of donor plants.
11) Handling of breeding material and maintenance of experimental record in Self pollinated crops, Cross pollinated crops and Layout of field experiments and trials.
12) Problems on Hardy- Weinberg law.
13) Estimation of Variability parameters.
14) Estimation of Heritability.
15) Estimation of Heterosis and Inbreeding depression.
16) Estimation of Combining Ability.
17) Visits (Arrange on holidays)
a) Seed production and certification plots: Crop name, Variety, Isolation distance, Stage of seed, maintenance of record & registers etc.
b) AICRP trials and programmes: Crop name, Varieties, Layout, Design, Replication, Objectives, maintenance of record & registers etc
c) Grow out test plots: Name crop & variety and Record morphological characters, stage of crop.
d) Various research stations: Mandate crops, Breeding objectives, Breeding trials, Generation of crop i.e. F1, F2, BC1, BC2…. etc.
e) Other institutions.

Appendix-I
a) Hybrids and improved varieties of field crops.
b) Hybrids and improved varieties of forage crops.
c) Achievements of stress breeding.
d) Hybrids and improved varieties of Horticultural crops.