BOT-234

BOT-234: CROP PHYSIOLOGY

Credits: 3(2+1)

THEORY:
Introduction, Definition, importance in agriculture. Growth and development, Definition. Determinate and indeterminate growth, measurement of growth, growth analysis, growth characteristics. Definition and mathematical formulae. Crop water relations: physiological importance of water to plants, water potential and its components, measurement of water status in plants. Transpiration: significance, transpiration in relation to crop productivity, water use efficiency (WUE) in C3, C4 and CAM plants, factor affecting WUE. Photosynthesis: energy synthesis, significance and C3, C4 and CAM pathway, relationship of photosynthesis and crop productivity. Photorespiration: factors affecting photosynthesis and productivity, photosynthetic efficiency, dry matter partitioning, Harvest index of crops. Respiration: respiration and its significance, brief account of growth respiration and maintenance respiration. Translocation: translocation of assimilates, phloem loading, apoplastic and symplastic transport of assimilates, source-sink concept. Nutrio-physiology: Definition Mengel’s classification of plant nutrients-functions of plant nutrients-deficiency and toxicity symptoms of plant nutrients foliar nutrition – hydroponics.

Photoperiodism and vernalisation: introduction of photoperiodism and vernalisation in relation to crop productivity – photoperiodism. Plant classification on basis of photoreponses-florigin concept in flowering of phytochrome in flowering process vernalization methods. Plant growth regulators: occurrence – biosynthesis – mode of action of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, commercial application of plant growth regulators in agriculture.

Senescence and abscission: Definition classification physiological and biochemical changes and their significance.

Post harvest physiology: fruit ripening, metamorphic changes, climacteric and non-climacteric fruits hormonal regulation of fruit ripening.

PRACTICALS:
Preparation of standard solutions, Growth analysis: Calculation of Growth parameters, Measurement of plant water status in different parts of the plant. Determination of water potential by Chardakov’s method. Measurement of Chloroplastic pigments. Measurement of leaf area in crop plants. Estimation of Chlorophyll (using 80% acetone) content in plant. Estimation of Chlorophyll (using DMSO) in plants. Measurement of Rate of Photosynthesis by dry weight method. Measurement of Respiration. Estimation of Stomatal index and Stomatal frequency. Measurement of rate of respiration and determination of R.Q. with the help of Ganong respirometer in different seeds. Demonstration of Transpiration. Demonstration of Effect of Osmotic pressure (Potential) on Rate of Imbibition. Optimum condition for seed germination. Effect ABA on regulation of stomata. Effect of ethylene on ripening of fruit.

Practical (Experiments):
1) Preparation of standard solutions.
2) Growth analyses: Calculation of Growth parameters.
3) Measurement of plant water status in different parts of the plant.
4) Determination of water potential by Chardakov’s method.
5) Measurement of Chloroplastic pigments.
6) Measurement of leaf area in crop plants.
7)Estimation of Chlorophyll (using 80% acetone) content in plant..
8) Estimation of Chlorophyll (using DMSO) in plants.
9) Measurement of Rate of Photosynthesis by dry weight method.
10) Measurement of Respiration.
11) Estimation of Stomatal index and Stomatal frequency.
12) Measurement of rate of respiration and determination of RQ with the help of Ganong respirometer
in different seeds.
13) Demonstration of Transpiration.
14) Demonstration of Effect of Osmotic pressure (Potential) on Rate Imbibition.
15) Optimum Condition for seed germination.
16) Effect ABA on regulation of stomata.
17) Effect of Ethylene on ripening of fruit.